Transnational Terrorism, Security & the Rule of Law


Publications

  • TTSRL Deliverables - Official Deliverables written and finalized as part of TTSRL

  • Journal articles - Researchers of the TTSRL-consortium have published several peer-reviewed journal-articles based on the results of the TTSRL-project.

  • TTSRL Contextual Papers - Papers (non-Deliverables) written in TTSRL context.

  • Newsletters - Newsletters with information on TTSRL

  • Policy Briefs - Summaries of the main policy recommendations of our research

  • Papers by Partners - Terrorism related papers written by one of the TTSRL partners


Transnational Terrorism, Security, and the Rule of Law produces 13 Deliverables for several Workpackages on aspects of transnational terrorism. These Deliverables are presented here in the first section. The contents of the Workpackages and Deliverables can be found here. The research for the Deliverables produces contextual papers that give more detailed information on terrorism, presented here in a separate section. Each Deliverable has its own newsletter, with an introduction to the actual research paper. These are listed here as well. Our consortium produces additional papers on terrorism that are not written within TTSRL context, that can be found here as well.


TTSRL Deliverables

Notions of Security - (Workpackage 2, Deliverable 1)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable This paper discusses definitions of security and gives a historical overview of this concept. In addition, several security related theories are discussed (such as realism, liberalism, and constructivism), and levels of analysis (system, state, individual levels). Finally, the authors take a look at how transnational terrorism fits into this theoretical framework.

The Evolving Threat of Terrorism in Policy and Media - (Workpackage 2, Deliverable 2)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable In this report we have analyzed the policy discourse on security within the European Union, both at the national level and at the EU level. Also, we have looked at the media discourse on terrorism in European countries as well as in a number of non-European countries, based on the assumption that the media discourse is an important element in policy decisions as well as an indicator of public perceptions of the issue.

Transnational Terrorism: Theoretical approaches and policy discourse - (Workpackage 2, Deliverable 3)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable Our aim in this deliverable was to determine whether the discourse on terrorism found in different European countries reflects new concepts and aspects of security (referring primarily to the matter of terrorism).

Defining Terrorism - (Workpackage 3, Deliverable 4)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable Without understanding the meaning of the term terrorism, it is hardly possible to analyze the consequences of the phenomenon. Unfortunately, different people and organizations use varying definitions. In Deliverable 4, we have investigated the manner in which terrorism has been conceptualized and classified in academic literature. In addition, we have analyzed how terrorism is defined in European law as well as in the codes of law of selected Member States.

Concepts of Terrorism: Analysis of the rise, decline, trends and risk - (Workpackage 3, Deliverable 5)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable This three part study presents an in-depth assessment of the concepts of terrorism. Part one looks into root and trigger causes, factors of decline and establishes a connection between the two concepts. Chapter two investigates whether changes in terrorist trends have led to changes in the risk terrorist groups pose to societies. Finally, chapter three presents cases studies of significant European terrorist organizations and the factors that have shaped the climate on this issue in Europe.

Terrorism and the Media - (Workpackage 4, Deliverable 6)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable The media play an important role in terrorist strategy. This paper discusses the relationship between terrorism and the mass media. It will describe this relationship, analyze the consequences, and discuss whether something can or should be done to break this link.

Radicalisation, Recruitment and the EU Counter-radicalisation Strategy - (Workpackage 4, Deliverable 7)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable Radicalisation is a complex phenomenon with similarly complex causes. This paper analyses processes of radicalisation and the contributing causal factors and catalysts. Furthermore, measures aimed at preventing radicalisation and recruitment at the EU level are discussed following an analysis of relevant EU policy papers.

Measures of Counterterrorism and their Effect on Civil Peace - (Workpackage 4, Deliverable 8)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable This report analyses how measures of counterterrorism have affected civil peace including processes of radicalization. The findings are mainly based on interviews conducted in five countries including Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom.

The Negative Economic Impact of Terrorism - (Workpackage 5, Deliverable 9)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable The aim of this study is to give an insight in the relation between economic globalization and transnational terrorism and their implications for those counterterrorism policies designed to minimize the economic consequences of terrorist attacks in the EU.

Theoretical Treatise on Counterterrorism Approaches - (Workpackage 6, Deliverable 10)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable This report aims to present a study of the theoretical dimension of counterterrorism by focusing on the extended scope of the concept, in order to be able to review the EU�s strategic efforts to combat terrorism. Elements from a number of academic fields are used in an effort to present a broad view of theories and notions that have continuously contributed to counterterrorism research.

Mapping Counterterrorism - (Workpackage 6, Deliverable 11)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable This report describes our framework devised to help us identify different categories of counterterrorism policies of states. A comparison of the counterterrorism efforts of several EU Member States is the result.

Conflict and Coherence - (Workpackage 6, Deliverable 12a)


Transnational Terrorism Deliverable This deliverable describes and analyzes counterterrorism policies of the European Union, and takes an in-depth look at whether or not they are coherent with other important EU policies.

The Ethical Justness of European Counterterrorism Measures - (Workpackage 6, Deliverable 12b)


Transnational Terrorism Deliverable This deliverables assesses the ethical justness of european counterterrorism measures and takes stock of six case studies including, France, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, UK and the EU. The case studies are available as separate reports and published under the heading contextual papers on our website.

Towards a comprehensive, coherent, and ethically just European counterterrorism policy - (Workpackage 6, Deliverable 13)

Transnational Terrorism Deliverable The purpose of deliverable 13 then is to digest information of other deliverables within workpackage 6, synthesize it, along with primary source documents, and tender policy proposals to make the European counterterrorism strategy truly comprehensive, feasible, and legitimate.
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Journal articles

Emil Souleimanov & Ondrej Ditrych - The Internationalisation of the Russian-Chechen Conflict: Myths and Reality In: Europe-Asia Studies Vol. 60, No. 7, September 2008, pp. 1199-1222

Abstract: The article provides a critical reading of various related discourses, depicting the political motives behind the conflict in Chechnya as a battlefield of the global jihad. These narratives have sought to present the involvement of external Islamist groups as a major factor in the conflict, and to portray many of the main groups within Chechnya as subscribing to a jihadist ideology. The authors suggest an alternative narrative focusing on the significance of the blood feud in the societies of the North Caucasus. It is argued that it is necessary to differentiate between the radicalisation of the resistance as such and the strengthening of the ideology of jihad. It is concluded that the resistance currently assumes a supranational character, yet one which is delimited regionally rather than globally.

Ramón Spaaij - The Enigma of Lone Wolf Terrorism: An Assessment. In: Studies in Conflict & Terrorism Vol. 33, No. 9, September 2010, pp. 854-870

Abstract: Lone wolf terrorism remains an ambiguous and enigmatic phenomenon. The boundaries of lone wolf terrorism are fuzzy and arbitrary. This article aims to define and analyze the main features and patterns of lone wolf terrorism in fifteen countries. Lone wolf terrorism is shown to be more prevalent in the United States than in the other countries under study. The cross-national analysis suggests that in the United States lone wolf terrorism has increased markedly during the past three decades; a similar increase does not appear to have occurred in the other countries under study. The numbers of casualties resulting from lone wolf terrorism have been relatively limited, and there is no evidence that the lethality of lone wolf terrorism is on the increase. The rates of psychological disturbance and social ineptitude are found to be relatively high among lone wolf terrorists. Lone wolf terrorists tend to create their own ideologies that combine personal frustrations and aversion with broader political, social, or religious aims. In this process, many lone wolf terrorists draw on the communities of belief and ideologies of validation generated and transmitted by extremist movements.

Read the COT-publication on Wolf terrorism here

Teun van Dongen - Mapping counterterrorism: a categorisation of policies and the promise of empirically based, systematic comparisons In: Critical Studies on Terrorism Vol. 3, No. 2, August 2010, 227-241

Abstract: This article describes the development and application of a framework to compare national counterterrorism policies. It discusses the state of the art regarding concepts, frameworks and inventories to compare counterterrorism policies, explains the logic behind our own framework, briefly describes the application to ten European Union Member States, and then formulates an empirically based categorisation of counterterrorism policies. It is shown that the counterterrorism policies of the nine European states differ fundamentally. The concluding section sums up the findings and addresses some possibilities for the practical application of a framework of this kind.

Read the TTSRL-publication on mapping counterterrorism here

Download the dataset mentioned in this article here

Bibi van Ginkel and Steven Westervelt - The ethical challenges of implementing counterterrorism measures and the role of the OSCE In: Security and Human Rights Vol. 20, No. 2, May 2009, pp. 123-132

Abstract: The United Nations established a counterterrorism mechanism in the form of the Counterterrorism Committee when it adopted Security Council Resolution 1373 (2001). The Committee has so far worked with regional organizations and individual states in capacity building efforts to augment local counterterrorism abilities. However, ethical bottlenecks remain. The problem of ethics arises when laws lack legitimacy regarding criminality and state power and when they diverge from the rule of law and good governance. Regional organizations are keenly placed to ensure that states adopt legitimate counterterrorism measures, thus avoiding ethical bottlenecks. By working with states to maintain the moral high ground, regional organizations such as the OSCE can prevent unnecessary compromises between human rights and security.

Read the TTSRL-publication on ethical justness of European counterterrorism measures here


TTSRL Contextual Papers
 

Causal Factors of Radicalization

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This paper, written in the context of Workpackage 4, Deliverable 7, aims to provide insight into the causal factors of radicalization as well as the complex interactions that lead to this phenomenon. In addition, it looks at the question which social groups are most susceptible to radicalization.
 

Defining Terrorism Within the EU

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This paper aims to provide an overview of the development and evolution of a definition for terrorism within the European Union. The paper was written in the context of Workpackage 3, Deliverables 4 and 5.
 

EU Counterradicalization Strategy

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This paper is, like the paper on Causal Factors of Radicalization, written for Workpackage 4, Deliverable 7. It evaluates the EU policies concerning the causes of radicalization. After a general analysis two specific case studies (The United Kingdom and Amsterdam) are used to illuminate the policies.
 

Euroterrorism

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This paper was written in the context of Workpackage 3, Deliverable 5. It deals with two strands in European terrorism, and the way organizations cooperate within and between those strands.
 

Exploring Root and Trigger Causes of Terrorism

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This study was written as a contextual paper for Workpackage 3, Deliverable 5. It investigates and analyzes the root and trigger causes for terrorism. After thorough assessment it illustrates five of the most commonly cited characteristics thought to contribute to root causes and to trigger causes.
 

Hizb ut Tahrir al Islami

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This report written for Workpackage 3, Deliverable 5, deals with the organization Hizb ut Tahrir al Islami. To many countries in and outside of Europe, Hizb ut Tahrir presents a particularly difficult challenge since it holds radical Islamist views, but openly only advocates peaceful change.
 

The "Hofstadgroep"

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This report written for Workpackage 3, Deliverable 5, analyzes the small Dutch terrorist network the "Hofstadgroep". It presents an examination of the network and its convicted members, particularly focusing on Mohammed Bouyeri, convicted murderer of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh. Analyzing the root causes and triggering events that incited Bouyeri's actions, we aimed to shed additional light on the counterterrorism policies in the Netherlands and abroad.
 

Isolating Terrorism

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This paper discusses some of the issues related to the problematic task of defining terrorism, in the context of Workpackage 3, Deliverables 4 and 5. A closer look is taken at the similarities and dissimilarities between terrorism and organized crime, as well as those between terrorism and other forms of political violence.
 

Right-wing Terrorism

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This report written for Workpackage 3, Deliverable 5, deals with extreme right-wing groups that carry out terrorism. Although after 9/11 most of the attention shifted from right wing to Islamist or religious terrorism, right-wing terrorism is gaining in importance again. This paper discusses this phenomenon.
 

EU case study

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This case study was written as part of Workpackage 6, Deliverable 12b and assesses the ethical justness of counterterrorism measures adopted by the EU.
 

France case study

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This case study was written as part of Workpackage 6, Deliverable 12b and assesses France's counterterrorism policy from the viewpoint of legality and legitimacy.
 

Germany case study

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This case study was written as part of Workpackage 6, Deliverable 12b and assesses Germany's counterterrorism policy from the viewpoint of legality and legitimacy.
 

Spain case study

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This case study was written as part of Workpackage 6, Deliverable 12b and assesses Spain's counterterrorism policy from the viewpoint of legality and legitimacy.
 

The Netherlands case study

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This case study was written as part of Workpackage 6, Deliverable 12b and assesses the Dutch counterterrorism policy from the viewpoint of legality and legitimacy.
 

The UK case study

Transnational Terrorism Contextual Paper This case study was written as part of Workpackage 6, Deliverable 12b and assesses UK's counterterrorism policy from the viewpoint of legality and legitimacy.
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Newsletters

Newsletter I, April 4, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter This TTSRL newsletter, the first, focuses on some general aspects of our project: who are we, what are we doing, and what are our plans? In addition, a summary is given of Workpackage 2, Deliverable 1, which can be read here in full as well. Additionally, several other publications are highlighted.

Newsletter II, April 15, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

This second TTSRL newsletter gives a summary of Workpackage 6, Deliverable 10. The full version of this Deliverable on Counterterrorism Approaches can be read here. Just like in our first newsletter, a reading corner and an events section are part of this newsletter as well.


Newsletter III, June 26, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

This newsletter, the third, gives a summary of Workpackage 6, Deliverable 11, on counterterrorism policies in the EU Member States. The full report can be read here. Our regulars, such as the Reading Corner, are of course part of this newsletter as well.


Newsletter IV, August 7, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

This fourth newsletter summarizes Deliverable 6 (Workpackage 4). The deliverable is on the relationship between terrorism and the media. Read the full paper here


Newsletter V, September 17, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

Our fifth newsletter summarizes Deliverable 9 (Workpackage 5), on the negative economic impact of terrorism and consequence minimization. Read the full paper here

Newsletter VI, October 3, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

Newsletter VI summarizes Deliverable 4 (Workpackage 3), that deals with definitions of terrorism. Read the full paper here

Newsletter VII, October 17, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

This newsletter, the seventh, summarizes Deliverable 2 (Workpackage 2), that deals with the evolving threat of terrorism in the media and in policy discourse. Read the full paper here

Newsletter VIII, November 14, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

Our eigth newsletter summarizes Deliverable 12a (Workpackage 6). This deliverable deals with the coherence and conflict between EU counterterrorism policy and other EU policies. Read the full paper here

Newsletter IX, November 21, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

Our ninth newsletter summarizes Deliverable 3 (Workpackage 2). This newsletter summarizes the findings and conclusions of deliverable 3 on the new concepts and aspects of security (referring primarily to the matter of terrorism) here

Newsletter X, December 16, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

Our tenth newsletter summarizes Deliverable 7 (Workpackage 4). This newsletter summarizes the findings and conclusions of deliverable 7 on radicalisation, recruitment and the EU counter-radicalisation strategy. The full text of the deliverable can be accessed here.

Newsletter XI, December 19, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

Our eleventh newsletter summarizes Deliverable 5 (Workpackage 3). This newsletter captures the research results of an in-depth three part study on concepts of terrorism. The full text of the deliverable can be accessed here.

Newsletter XII, January 26, 2009

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

Our twelfth newsletter summarizes Deliverable 12b (Workpackage 6). Deliverable 12b assesses the ethical justness of counterterrorism measures from a perspective of five countries and also evaluates the EU Counterterrorism policy. The full text of the deliverable can be accessed here.

Newsletter XIII, February 2, 2009

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

Our thirteenth newsletter summarizes Deliverable 8 (Workpackage 4). This deliverable analyses how measures of counterterrorism have affected civil peace including processes of radicalization. The full text of the deliverable can be accessed here.

Newsletter XIV, February 18, 2009

Transnational Terrorism Newsletter

Our fourteenth newsletter is a special edition which covers the TTSRL conference. In the newsletter we present the general overviews of the workshops and provide key conclusions of the discussions. To review the PowerPoint slides presented at the conference, please go to our conference page or just click here.

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Policy Briefs

Policy Brief I, October 31, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Policy Brief

Our first Policy Brief deals with policy recommendations linked to our Workpackage 5. This workpackage is about economic consequences of terrorism, as well as means for consequence minimization. Read the full paper here

Policy Brief II, November 7, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Policy Brief

This policy brief deals with our recommendations in relation to workpackage 3, deliverable 4. Specifically, this concerns the issue of a definition of terrorism. Read the full deliverable here

Policy Brief III, December 5, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Policy Brief

This policy brief deals with our recommendations in relation to workpackage 4, deliverable 6. This workpackage deals with issues relating to media and terrorism. Read the full deliverable here

Policy Brief IV, December 16, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Policy Brief

This policy brief deals with our recommendations in relation to workpackage 4, deliverable 7. The workpackage looks into processes of radicalisation, recruitment and the EU counter-radicalisation strategy. Read the full deliverable here.

Policy Brief V, December 19, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Policy Brief

This policy brief summarizes key recommendations based on the conclusions of an in-depth three part study on concepts of terrorism. You can read the full deliverable here.

Policy Brief VI, December 29, 2008

Transnational Terrorism Policy Brief

This policy brief summarizes key recommendations based on the conclusions and research findings of three deliverables in workpackage 2, dealing with notions of security. You can find the full deliverables in the publications section of our website.

Policy Brief VII, May 04, 2009

Transnational Terrorism Policy Brief

This policy brief summarizes key recommendations based on the conclusions and research findings of deliverable 13 in workpackage 6. The aim of this deliverable and policy brief was to synthesize information provided in three other deliverables in this workpackage under the heading of "Towards a comprehensive, coherent and ethically just European counterterrorism policy". You can find the full deliverables in the publications section of our website.

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Papers by Partners

The Evolution of Al-Qaedaism: Ideology, Terrorists, and Appeal

Paper by Clingendael This study does not try to analyze the latest developments or to describe the Al-Qaeda of today, given its extreme fluidity. Instead the authors go back to basics and look at the different forms and phases of Al-Qaeda, and investigate the persons and ideas behind it. With regard to the latter, their primary focus is not on the many post-9/11 studies on Al-Qaeda, but on the documents and statements of Al-Qaeda itself.

Facing the Victims in the Global Fight against Terrorism

Paper by Fride This FRIDE paper focuses on the situation and the rights of victims of violence related to terrorism and counterterrorism.

Lone-Wolf Terrorism

Paper by COT This paper was written by COT in TTSRL context for Workpackage 3, Deliverables 4 and 5, and focuses on one particular form of terrorism: Lone-Wolf Terrorism. Apart from a definition, a historical overview and many examples, some personal characteristics and methods are analyzed. Finally, both the impact of Lone-Wolf terrorism and some possible responses are discussed.

Studying Violent Radicalization in Europe I

Paper by DCISM / DIIS A paper by DCISM / DIIS that explores the potential contribution of Social Movement Theory to throw light on the question of violent radicalization in Europe

Studying Violent Radicalization in Europe II

Paper by DCISM / DIIS The follow-up paper by DCISM / DIIS explores the potential contribution of socio-psychological and pshychological approaches to explain the question of violent radicalization in Europe
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Be sure to read our publication on coherence of European counterterrorism measures EU Counterterrorism measures