Security & the Rule of Law

Transnational Terrorism

TTSRL was a multi-faceted research project that aimed to help Europe better understand terrorism. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2009:

  • TTSRL published many research papers on transnational terrorism in Europe;
  • TTSRL published peer-reviewed journal articles on various research topics;
  • TTSRL framed the current nature of the threat of terrorism in the EU;
  • TTSRL generated insight into the various response options to terrorism;
  • TTSRL aimed to bridge the gap between the scientific approach to transnational terrorism and the practicality of various available counterterrorism options;
  • TTSRL focused on a broad range of terrorism related subjects, including radicalization, societal order, the relation with the media, counterterrorism, theoretical background and academic discourse as well as practical case studies;
  • TTSRL combined the knowledge and experience of highly dedicated researchers at six research institutions from four EU member states, collaborating in a consortium.
  • The TTSRL-project is divided into several Workpackages and Deliverables each discussing different aspects of terrorism in Europe. For an overview of these and a workplanning, please click here.
  • TTSRL constitutes a research project in the scope of the 6th Framework Program of the EU, and is financed by the European Commission .

This internet website will introduce you to the background of our project, and allow you to download several publications on transnational terrorism in Europe. If any questions remain, feel free to contact us.

Research

In this section we will give information on the abstract of the research focus, the projected outcome and the timeframe in which the research is to be conducted. A more detailed description of the research project as well as unforeseen milestones can be found under “proposal”.

First, however, we will take this opportunity to introduce to you most of the researchers contributing to this project. They are listed below, grouped according to the institution they work for. For more information on the institutes, please turn to the page on our consortium

  • ISSCM – COT Institute for Safety, Security, and Conflict Management (The Netherlands)
  • Clingendael – Netherlands Institute of International Relations (The Netherlands
  • DCISM – Danish Centre for International Studies and Human Rights (Denmark)
  • FRIDE – La Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (Spain)
  • IIR – Institute for International Relations (Czech Republic)
  • TNO – Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (The Netherlands)

Roland Bron (Senior Research-Consultant) studied Law and Communication Science at the Universities of Leiden and Amsterdam (UvA). At the COT he has participated in research in the fields of security and crisismanagement, as well as the training of crisisteams. He has been working with police, public prosecution service, intelligence agencies and various private organizations. Throughout his work, he has focused on the implications of the terrorist threat for these organizations. For TTSRL, his main focus is the overall project coordination.

Dennis de Hoog (Senior Research-Consultant) holds a Masters of Arts degree in history and a Masters of Science degree in Political Science (cum laude). In his Political Science masters thesis Democracy & Terrorism: A new quantitative inquiry into the relationship between terrorism and regime types he provided the �democracy-terrorism� debate with a new impetus by using a more sound statistical tool and by broadening the empirical scope of the debate from only transnational terrorism to incidents of domestic terrorism as well. For the COT he has been conducting policy-oriented research in the fields of safety and crisis management in general and the policing and counter-terrorism field in particular. With respect to counter-terrorism his main foci are preparation, consequence management & radicalization.
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Conference

We are pleased to announce the successful end to the TTSRL conference held in the Berlaymont Building of the European Commission on February 5-6, 2009. Prominent researchers, academics and practitioners from around the world in the field of counterterrorism and security gathered to participate in the two day event.

Summaries of the workshops and main findings have been incorporated into a special edition of the TTSRL newsletter. Click here to go directly to the newsletter.

Copies of the presentations from the conference have been uploaded and are available by clicking on the link below.

We would like to thank everyone who made this conference a success and look forward to the possibility of cooperating with you on future projects!

The photos displayed below were taken during the TTSRL Conference.

Click on the pictures below to view a bigger version.

Consortium

In order to get more information on one of the partners please choose from the links below.

  • ISSCM – COT Institute for Safety, Security, and Conflict Management (The Netherlands)
  • Clingendael – Netherlands Institute of International Relations (The Netherlands
  • DCISM – Danish Centre for International Studies and Human Rights (Denmark)
  • FRIDE – La Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (Spain)
  • IIR – Institute for International Relations (Czech Republic)
  • TNO – Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO (The Netherlands)

Security, as is evident from the prior discussion on ‘notions of security’, is a rather intangible concept that crosses the boundaries between diverse dimensions and geographical domains of well-being. The absence of violence, in itself, is not considered to meet all the criteria for a secure environment. The same holds for security concerns, which are rooted in a diverse sub-set of issues and causes. Terrorism, as a security concern, is therefore both a research and policy-field that warrants a multi-disciplinary and cross-national approach that takes due account of the various approaches and practices available.

The consortium behind the proposed research project reflects this multi-disciplinary and cross-national approach, and brings together European experts from a variety of backgrounds, institutional settings, and perspectives. Bridging the gap between public and private enterprises, the participants share a general interest in conflicts and terrorism as common denominator.

In general, the consortium represents the geographical spread of the proposed project. Bringing together institutions from the Northern, Southern, Central and Western regions of the European Union reflects the desire to look at the issue of transnational terrorism from a truly European perspective. The widening and deepening of the Union has greatly influenced its geo-strategic position in the world, and the analogous spread of partners helps precluding problems associated with regional over-representation and bias. We have for this project consciously opted for a relatively small (albeit geographically representative) consortium, with a ‘hard-core’ of a Dutch Joint Research Unit consisting of two (fairly heterogeneous, but geographically close) organizations. With this construct, we hope to capture all the benefits of heterogeneity, while at the same still minimizing the transaction costs that such an approach imposes.
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Medicine to Treat Acne Scars

acneRolling, boxcar and also ice-pick marks are depressed marks, which trigger a “opening” in the skin’s surface area, while keloid marks are elevated, thick marks. Ice-pick marks are mild to quite deep, as if a small ice-pick pierced an opening in the skin.

Lightening Creams

If you have acne places, or if your marks are darker in coloring compared to your skin, lightening lotions can be dependable in decreasing their staining. If acquiring an over the counter item, Skin care Physicians suggests seeking items having 2 percent hydroquione as well as alerts that you ought to adhere to producer instructions very closely to avoid ruining the concerning cells.

Skin doctors could recommend as much as 4 percent hydroquione or a mix of medicines such as hydroquinone, a corticosteroid as well as tretinoin.

Applied to marks daily either straight from a vitamin E pill or from a topical lotion including vitamin E, it aids the skin recover itself while relaxing as well as lessening the look of the mark. Lots of non-prescription mark medicines include vitamin E as their key substance.

Glycolic Acid.

Chemical peels are usually made use of to deal with surface marks and also acne marks. Marks are developed layer by layer, linking harmed skin cells, and also a chemical peel eliminates the mark layer by layer.
Lactic Acid.

Chemical-Face-Peel advises it particularly for those with normally completely dry skin, yet it is great for all skin kinds. It’s additionally the least most likely acid made use of in chemical peels off to trigger a response with your skin.

Gout Diet Foods

Following a minimal-purine diet helps limit uric acid production and manage the indications of gout — an unpleasant condition occurring when uric acid grows with your joints. With a low-purine or gout diet, you’ll avoid foods high in purines — naturally-occurring substance seen in many foods, particularly of animal origin. Your medical provider may recommend going to a registered dietitian that will help you implement this kind of diet.

High Purine Foods to prevent

A small-purine diet typically restricts anyone to about 100 to 150 milligrams of purines daily. Foods with 100 to one thousand milligrams of purine per 3-ounce serving include bacon, organ meats, yeast, yeast extracts, venison, minced meat and meat extracts. Certain fish may also be very high in purines; included in this are anchovies, codfish, herring, haddock, mackerel and sardines. Other sorts of seafood you have to avoid on the low-purine diet include shrimp, scallops and mussels.

Foods to add

It’s safe that you can eat lots of fruits that supply fiber in addition to plenty of nutrients. You may also eat eggs and low-fat dairy products. Most vegetables are reduced in purines. Some vegetables, like asparagus, spinach, mushrooms and cauliflower have a moderate quantity of purines. You may have to limit the serving size of such moderate-purine foods. For instance, limit oats to not more than six ounces every day, recommends the NYU Langone Medical Center. Limit moderate-purine vegetables to a maximum of one-half cup each day. It’s also a smart idea to eat enriched breads, rice, noodles, pasta and potatoes, based on the NYU Langone Medical Center.

Sample Menu

An illustration of this breakfast with a low-purine diet includes 1/2 cup of low-fat yogurt, one slice of whole-wheat toast and 1 cup of mixed fruit. For lunch, you may have a chicken sandwich, using 3 ounces of lean chicken breast, two slices of enriched bread along with a side salad with reduced-fat dressing. An average dinner with a low-purine diet might include 3 ounces of salmon, 1 cup of broccoli, one-half-cup of rice as well as a small salad with fat-free dressing.

Other Guidelines

Together with avoiding high purine foods, you have to avoid or limit alcohol because it increases uric acid production. Limit meat to 3 ounces per meal, recommends the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center. Drink a good amount of fluids, no less than eight to 12 cups daily, since fluids help dilute uric acid inside your blood. Limit high-fat foods and go for lower-fat alternatives. By way of example, choose low-free milk products like fat-free cottage type cheese and low-fat yogurt. In the event you slim down, do it slowly since weight loss increases uric acid levels.

Eye Floaters

Floaters are small objects appearing to float on the eyeball. They take many shapes including specks, cobwebs, and squiggly threads, and are most frequently visible when viewing bright objects, for instance a white wall or blue sky. Floaters appear to float away whenever you try to consider them, plus they normally have a translucent or shadowy tint. Similar to the treatment of the condition, confer with your doctor prior to starting any treatment option.

Background

A gelatinous fluid – approximately 99 percent water, but 2 to 4 times as viscous as water — known as the vitreous humor fills the eyeball. As you may age, the vitreous humor shrinks, creating it becoming slightly stringy. The shadows of such strings become slightly visible and you also discover them as floaters. While aging and shrinking from the vitreous humor predominantly cause floaters, eye injury, disease, and surgery can also be factors.

Significance

Almost everyone has eye floaters, and so they be more common as you become older. They generally will not indicate medical issues, and physicians typically recommend ignoring them. After forming, floaters, whilst not necessarily disappearing completely, often settle from the field of vision. Should they be too dark or too numerous, or both, surgical options exist. A surgeon may execute a vitrectomy to eliminate section of the vitreous humor and also the floaters, replacing it by using a salt-water solution. However, this surgery poses significant risks of complications.

Treatment

While ignoring eye floaters will be the safest and easiest management option, a lot of people may decide to try proactive non-invasive ways to eliminating the floaters. Practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine report anecdotal proof chinese people wolfberry effectively treating eye floaters, based on a write-up published in volume 16, issue 11, of “What Doctors Don’t Inform You.” However, research evidence about the subject is tough in the future by, and you need to always consult a physician prior to trying a fresh treatment.

Alternatives

Some consider eye floaters an issue associated with connective tissue. The Connective Tissue Disorder Site suggests identifying parts of tension within your body which could give rise to eye floaters and performing trigger therapy. The internet site also suggests eating magnesium-rich foods, which promote relaxation, and avoiding foods like coffee or activities that can bring about blood vessel constriction. Again, evidence is anecdotal and you will consult a health care provider about any health problems.

Prevention

Based on a web site called “Floaters within the Eye,” foods abundant in vit c including oranges, lemons, peppers, broccoli and kiwi fruit could help to stop floaters. Additionally they recommend eating meals full of zinc and copper, for example shellfish and nuts. Finally, since the vitreous humor is 99 percent water, and proper cell activity is dependent upon adequate hydration, sufficient drinking habits might also aid in eye floater management.

Further Considerations

A lot of people experience eye floaters, particularly as they age. Typically they are doing not represent a danger. Handling your body with frequent exercise, proper hydration as well as a balanced diet, and limiting contact with harmful substances and activities boosts your likelihood of getting and staying healthy. When you experience an abrupt alteration of eye floater quantity, activity, or some other sudden alternation in vision, talk to your doctor immediately.

Mixed Nuts

Loaded with Calories

Mixed nuts really are a rich way to obtain calories, providing 168 in each 1-ounce serving. If you’re seeking to gain pounds or muscle, high-calorie foods are great choices. Additionally, high-calorie foods including mixed nuts could be good snacks if you’re hiking or performing other strenuous, calorie-burning activities. Unlike other foods, mixed nuts don’t must be refrigerated, for them to be convenient and portable.

Full of Unsaturated Fat

Mixed nuts are calorie-dense due to the high fat content. Each 1-ounce serving of mixed nuts provides about 15 grams of fat, with about 13 grams from unsaturated fat. Unsaturated fats are healthier than unhealthy fats, as being the latter type promotes an elevated chance of cardiovascular disease. Your system needs unsaturated fats to help in vitamin absorption, provide energy and promote healthy development and growth.

High in Magnesium and Zinc

Mixed nuts are an excellent source of magnesium, an important mineral. Magnesium assists in the regulating your blood pressure and blood sugar levels and plays a part in maintaining the purpose of your nerves, muscles and heart. Mixed nuts are an excellent source of zinc, a nutrient that supports in immune health, development and growth and reproductive health.

Reduced in Sodium

Mixed nuts are lower in sodium, that is not common for snack food items. While sodium provides flavor plus some is essential to improve your health, a lot of sodium can promote water retention and high blood pressure. When picking nuts, try to find fresh nuts or possibly a can of mixed that fails to contain added salt.

Loaded with Calories

Mixed nuts certainly are a rich method to obtain calories, providing 168 in each 1-ounce serving. If you’re looking to gain pounds or muscle, high-calorie foods are excellent choices. Additionally, high-calorie foods like mixed nuts could be good snacks if you’re hiking or undertaking other strenuous, calorie-burning activities. Unlike other foods, mixed nuts don’t have to be refrigerated, to allow them to be convenient and portable.

Loaded with Unsaturated Fat

Mixed nuts are calorie-dense due to the high fat content. Each 1-ounce serving of mixed nuts provides about 15 grams of fat, with about 13 grams originating from unsaturated fat. Unsaturated fats are healthier than bad fats, since the latter type promotes a heightened probability of heart problems. Your system needs unsaturated fats to help in vitamin absorption, provide energy and promote healthy development and growth.

High in Magnesium and Zinc

Mixed nuts are an excellent source of magnesium, an important mineral. Magnesium helps with the regulating your blood pressure and blood sugar levels and plays a part in maintaining the purpose of your nerves, muscles and heart. Mixed nuts are an excellent source of zinc, a nutrient that helps with immune health, development and growth and reproductive health.

Reduced in Sodium

Mixed nuts are less sodium, which happens to be not common for snacks. While sodium provides flavor plus some is necessary to improve your health, a lot of sodium can promote water retention and high blood pressure. In choosing nuts, try to find fresh nuts or even a can of mixed that fails to contain added salt.

Climbing Stairs Exercise

Your heart, lungs and also your waistline all benefit if you perform aerobic exercises. While walking on the level surface represents a secure kind of aerobic activity and is perfect for beginners, trainers often recommend deviating out of your normal walk to climb stairs. Stair climbing burns more calories compared to a traditional walk and increases the chance to attain weight loss. Know the benefits and hazards of climbing stairs so that you can plan your fitness routine.

Stair Climbing Health Advantages

Aerobic workouts that come with stair climbing offer many different advantages to your state of health. The vigorous and continuous movement of your respective legs and hips brings about deeper breathing and increases your heartbeat, which enhances blood flow to all of areas of the body. Your system releases natural anesthetics, or endorphins, throughout a stair climb, so you’ll feel good and get less tension. Doctors also recommend stair climbing being an ideal method to enhance your energy, improve the purpose of your immunity process minimizing your risk for diabetes, high blood pressure, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.

Weight and Increased Challenge

Harvard Medical School reports that stair climbing is an efficient technique for losing weight and maintain it, since people that walk up stairs, even at the slower pace, lose weight 3 x faster than when walking at the faster speed with a normal surface. An exercise in the stairs offers maximum challenge for individuals that already maintain good fitness, including football players and also other athletes, because the activity is estimated to become two times as vigorous as weight lifting or walking on the steep incline.

Exactly How Much You’ll Need

Fitness experts usually recommend between 30 and 1 hour of aerobic activity like stair climbing on 3 to 5 days per week to be able to gain one of the most health and fitness benefits. Start in a slow pace and make an effort to walk only some flights until your system feels ready to have an increased challenge. Protect the feet during stair workouts by putting on shoes by using a firm heel, thick soles and sufficient arch support and make an effort to spend at the very least 5 minutes walking normally with a slow pace to warm your muscle mass. Consider alternating your stair climbing with aerobic methods like bike riding or swimming to avoid muscle overuse and limit joint strain.

Not for all

While stair climbing offers a number of health advantages, the vigorous activity can be unsafe for people who have heart disease, along with people that have knee, hip or ankle problems. Discuss stair climbing along with your doctor prior to any activity minimizing your risk for injury utilizing the railing for balance. Use extreme care when you are traveling downward, when your knees and ankles are exposed to stress that equals no less than six times your normal body mass, based on the The Big Apple Times.com.

© 2015 Transnational Terrorism